The central theme of the project is computer-based feedback in formative assessment. The project covers three topics: 1) A theoretical synthesis on various approaches to formative assessment; Data-Based Decision Making (DBDM), Assessment for Learning (AfL), and Diagnostic Testing (DT), and how these approaches can be implemented and integrated in a meaningful way. The need to review and compare the theoretical underpinnings of DBDM, AfL, and DT originated from our observation that within some of the approaches the terminology and definitions are used interchangeably. Also, definitions of DBDM, AfL and DT seemed to be misinterpreted, which sometimes resulted in counter-productive non-formative assessment practices. 2) The effects of item-based feedback in computer-based assessments or learning environments on student learning, using an experimental method, a systematic review, and a meta-analysis. 3) How to effectively communicate feedback about student learning through score reports to different stakeholders. This section focuses on the investigation and redesign of the score reports from the Computer Program LOVS, belonging to Cito's pupil monitoring system, which provides teachers, internal support teachers, and principals with data feedback about student learning.